South Africa

South Africa

International Treaties

1. The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

2. The Convention on the Rights of the Child

3. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography


Regional Treaties

1. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the child

Domestic Law 

1. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996

2. The Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 

3. Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998

4. Children’s Act 38 of 2005 with Amendments

5. Older Persons Act 2006 (Act No. 13 of 2006)

6. Protection from Harassment Act, 2011 (Act No 17 of 2011)

7. Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2013 (Act No 7 of 2013)

8. Service Charter for Victims of Crime in South Africa

9. Judicial Matters Second Amendment Act, 2013 (Act No 43 of 2013)

10. The National Policy Framework on Management of Sexual Offences:Section 62(1) of the Criminal Law (Sexual offences and related matters)Amendment Act, 2007

11. The South Africa Police Service National Instruction 3/2008: Sexual Offences>

12. Policy to Address Sexual Abuse of Inmates in DCS Facilities, 2011

13.  Policy to Address Sexual Abuse of Inmates in DCS Facilities, 2011

14. National Sexual Assault policy, 2005

15. Integrated Violence Prevention Policy Framework

16. Draft Regulations relating to Sexual Offences Courts: Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and related matters) Amendment Act, 2007 (Act No 32 of 2007)

Reports of the United Nations

1. National Policy Guidelines For Victim Empowerment, Department of Social Development, Republic of South, UNODC, European Union Africa,

Reports of other International/Regional Organisations/ National Governments

1. Report of Department of Justice and Constitutional Development on the implementation of Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007: 01 April 2014 to 31 March 2015

Books, Articles and Newspaper Publications

1. Minimum standards for service delivery in Victim Empowerment (Victims of Crime and Violence), Department of Social Development, Republic of South Africa, First issue: 25 August 2004 Reproduced: January 2008

2. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Final Report 21 March 2003

3. Kristin L. Dunkle, Rachel K. Jewkes , Daniel W. Murdock, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Robert Morrell,  Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, PLOS Medicine June 18, 2013

4. Romi Sigsworth, Senior Researcher, Gender-Based Violence Programme, Anyone can be a rapist…    … ’ An Overview of Sexual Violence in South Africa, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), 2017

5. Karen M Devries, Franziska Meinck, Sexual violence against children and adolescents in South Africa: making the invisible visible, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 4, April 01 2018, p.367-368 

6. Catherine L Ward, Lillian Artz, Lezanne Leoschut, Reshma Kassanjee, Patrick Burton, Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 4, April 01 2018, p. 460-468 

7. Alice Clarfelt , Men and Boys and Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV). Discussions with youth peer educators and staff at Restless Development South Africa: challenges and recommendations., Restless Development, Report 9th October 2014

8. Louise du Toit, Shifting Meanings of Postconflict Sexual Violence in South Africa  Vol. 40, No. 1 (Autumn 2014)

9. K Dunkle et al,Prevalence of consensual male–male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study, PLoS Medicine, 10:6, 2013

10. DOJ&CD. Report On The Re-Establishment Of Sexual Offences Courts South Africa, Department of Justice and Constitutional Development, Republic of South Africa, 2013

11. Sasha Gear, Imprisoning men in violence: Masculinity and sexual abuse: a view from South African prisons, SA Crime Quarterly No 33,  Septemeber 2010

12. Yandisa Sikweyiya & Rachel Jewkes, Force and temptation: contrasting South African men’s accounts of coercion into sex by men and women

Culture, Health & Sexuality, 11:5, 529-541

13. Karen Booyens, The sexual assault and rape of male offenders and awaiting-trial detainees, Doctor Philosophiae, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, 2008.

14. L Artz & D Smythe (ed) , Should We Consent? Rape Law Reform in South Africa, Juta & Co, Ltd 2008

15. Dunkle, KL, Jewkes, R, Nduna, M, Jama, N, Levin, J, Sikweyiya, Y and Koss, MP. , Transactional sex with casual and main partners among young South African men in the rural Eastern Cape: Prevalence, predictors, and associations with gender-based violence, Social Science & Medicine 65: 1235-1248, 2007

16. Sasha Gear, Doing Time in a Gauteng Juvenile Correctional Centre for Males, Briefing Report 01, Johannesburg, CSVR, 2007

17. Sasha Gear, Fear, Violence and Sexual Violence in a Gauteng Juvenile Correctional Centre for Males, Briefing Report 02 , Johannesburg: CSVR, 2007

18. Robert W Dumond, The Impact of Prisoner Sexual Violence: Challenges of Implementing Public Law, 108-79 – The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, Journal of Legislation, Volume 32 , Issue 2,5 January 2006

19. Sasha Gear, Mark Isserow with Camilla Nevill, Situational Analysis of Boksburg Youth Centre: Sexual Violence in Prison Pilot Project (Dec 2004 – Jan 2005) Survey Report

Johannesburg, CSVR, 2006

20. Sasha Gear, Rules of engagement: structuring sex and damage in men’s prisons and beyond Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(3), 2005, 195-208’s_prisons_and_beyond

21. Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Hoffman, M. & R. Laubsher, Sexual violence against intimate partners in Cape Town: prevalence and risk factors reported by men, Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004; 82 (4)

22. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Final Report, 21 March 2003 

23. S Gear and K Ngubeni, Daai Ding, Sex, Sexual Violence and Coercion in Men’s Prisons, Johannesburg, CSVR, 2002


1. UNICEF South Africa  ‘Thuthuzela Care Centres’

2. Thuthuzela Care Centres Brochure

3. Cynthia Maseko, Male rape still considered a joke in South Africa, 29 July 2015, Health 24 

4. Se-Anne Rall, Secret shame of male rape, 24 June 2017, IOL 

5. Cynthia Maseko, Male rape victim: ‘He turned me over with force’, 29 August 2017, Health 24 

6. The South African Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse 

7. Sonke Gender Justice Network, South Africa 

8. Sonke Gender Justice Network, South Africa (Testimonials)

9. Male Survivor Stories, The Bristlecone Project


1. Lauren Isaacs, George serial rapist (21) gets hefty prison sentence, Eyewitness News 

2. Richard Hartley-Parkinson, Schoolboy gets gang-raped by other school boys, Metro News, 25 September2019

3. Tshepo Phagane,  investigating gang rape of grade R boy, SABC News, 27 September 2019 

4. Sharika Regchand, Man who allegedly raped young boy in Mosque is granted bail, News 24 March 2019 

5. Naledi Shange, Thaba Nchu schoolboy raped by five classmates, Sowetan Live, 12 June 2018

6.    Prega Govender, Boy (15) to relive horror of gang rape, Sowetan Live, 05 September 2019

7. Sheena Swemmer,  Attempted rape is not as serious as other sexual violence in South Africa, Daily Maverick, 3 March 2019

8. Naledi Shange, Male survivors often do not speak up, because they do not view the sexual violation that has happened to them as a crime , Times Live, 9 April 2019

9.  Liesl Pretorius, 5 years on: Are sexual offences courts working?, City Press, 26 November 2018