Central African Republic

Central African Republic

International Treaties

Regional Treaties​

Domestic  Law 

Case Law

1. Bemba Case 

Case Title : The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo 

Case Citation : ICC-01/05-01/08 

Charges : Charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. 

Case Status :  On 21 March 2016, Trial Chamber III declared, unanimously, Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo guilty beyond any reasonable doubt of two counts of crimes against humanity (murder and rape) and three counts of war crimes (murder, rape, and pillaging ). 

Sentence : On 21 June 2016, Trial Chamber III sentenced Mr Bemba to 18 years of imprisonment. 

Country : Central African Republic 

 Link :  https://www.icc-cpi.int/car/bemba 

2. Bemba et al. Case 

Case Title : The Prosecutor v. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Aimé Kilolo Musamba, Jean-Jacques Mangenda Kabongo, Fidèle Babala Wandu and Narcisse Arido 

Case Citation : ICC-01/05-01/13 

Charges : Charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. 

Case Status : On 8 June 2018, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court decided by majority, to acquit Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo from the charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. 

Country : Central African Republic  

 Link :  https://www.icc-cpi.int/car/Bemba-et-al 

3. Situation in Central African Republic II 

Case Title :  Prosecutor v. Alfred Yekatom and Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona 

Case Citation : ICC-01/14-01/18

Charges : Suspected of crimes against humanity and war crimes allegedly committed in Central African Republic (CAR) between December 2013 and December 2014. 

Case Status : Confirmation of charges hearing took place on 19 – 25 September and 11 October 2019. Charges partially confirmed on 11 December 2019. In ICC custody.

Country : Central African Republic  

 Link :  https://www.icc-cpi.int/carII/yekatom-nga%C3%AFssona

Reports of the United Nations

1.Report of the Secretary General on Conflict Related Sexual Violence, S/2017/249, 15 April 2017.


2. Communique Conjoint entre la Republique centrafricaine et l’ Organisation des Nations Unies ; Prevention et lutte contre les violences sexuelles liees au conflit, (S/2019/280), 31 mai 2019. (French) 

A joint Communiqué between the United Nations and the Government of Central African Republic to tackle sexual violence


Reports of other International/Regional Organisations / National Governments

1.Central African Republic Situation in the Central African Republic, ICC-01/05, December 2004.


2. Situation in the Central African Republic II Article 53(1) Report, The Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court,  24 September 2014


3. Central African Republic : Submission To The United Nations Committee On Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 63rd Session, All Survivors Project, 12 – 29th  March 2018.        https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CESCR/Shared%20Documents/CAF/INT_CESCR_CSS_CAF_30535_E.pdf

4. “I don’t know who can help” Men and boys facing sexual violence in Central African Republic, All Survivors Project, 23rd February,2018


5. The long wait for Justice :  Accountability in Central African Republic, Amnesty International, January 2017.


Books/Articles /Documents/ Research Papers / Workshops / Publications

1.OHCHR Mapping Report | Central African Republic (CAR), Conflict-related Sexual and Gender Based Violence, May 2017  https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/CF/Mapping2003-2015/Factsheet4-EN.pdf

2. Gender-based violence in the Central African Republic by Diana Trimino Mora, Elisabeth Roesch and Catherine Poulton, Humanitarian Practice Network, September 2014 https://odihpn.org/magazine/gender-based-violence-in-the-central-african-republic/     

3. New Special Court in the Central African Republic: The aend of impunity for sexual violence crimes? By Elisabeth Elander.         http://www.mukwegefoundation.org/2018/06/04/new-special-court-central-african-republic-impunity-sexual-violence-crimes/      

4. Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative: Central African Republic Stigma Workshop, Organised by Tearfund Bangui and the Lobaye Region, 30-31 August 2017  https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/645637/SV_Workshop_Report_-_CAR.pdf

5. Sexual violence against men and boys in CAR by Allan Ngari, Institute of Security Studies, 23 JUL 2018.


6. Sexual violence against men and boys in CAR By ISS Today, Daily Maverick, 23 July 2018


7. Fighting Stigma and caring for victims of Sexual Violence in Central African Republic, Doctors Without Borders, July 24, 2019


8. GENDER NORMS, VIOLENCE AND CONCEPTS OF MASCULINITY, A qualitative research report on faith communities’ perceptions and experience in Bangui, Central African Republic, Author and researcher: Hendrew Lusey, Editor: Maggie Sandilands, Published by Tearfund 2016


9. The importance of understanding sexual violence in conflict for investigation and prosecution purposes de Brouwer, A.L.M. Published in: Cornell International Law Journal, 2015



1. Council on Foreign Relations, Global Conflict Tracker,  updated December 6, 2018.



1. French Troops Accused of Sexual Violence in the Central African Republic, by Francis Dubois, Mondialisation.ca, 08 April 2016.


2. UNICEF: More than 1.5 million children in CAR need emergency aid, UN agency warns 43,000 children under the age of five ‘face an extremely high risk of death’ as crisis  worsens, Al Jazeera News, 30 Nov 2018. 


3. ‘Killing, abuse, sexual violence beyond belief’: fears grow of all-out war in CAR, Rebecca Ratcliffe, The Guardian, Fri 16 Nov 2018.  


4. Rape of men and boys in Central African Republic is ‘ignored’ crime, Nellie Peyton, Reuters, Big Story 10, MARCH 5, 2018.


5.Rape of men and boys ‘serious blind spot’ in Central African Republic, Isabelle Gerretsen, International Business Times, March 5, 2018. 


6. Militias, UN troops accused of sexual assault in Central African Republic, Ngala Killian Chimtom, Crux, Mar 19, 2018


7. Special Report Central African Republic, part 3: ‘I have no power to complain’ : Victims of sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers find little support or justice, Phillip Kleinfeld, IRIN, DEKOA/Central African Republic, 25 July 2018. 


8. ISS: Sexual violence against men and boys in CAR, Written by ISS Africa, Defence Web, Monday, 23 July 2018. 


9. Lone warriors rescue sex slaves, rape survivors in Central African Republic, Inna Lazareva, Thomson Reuters Foundation, February 23, 2018.     https://www.zilient.org/article/lone-warriors-rescue-sex-slaves-rape-survivors-central-african-republic

10. UN Peacekeepers accused of raping civilians, Joshua Berlinger, Holly Yan and Richard Roth, CNN, April 6, 2016


11. “Male Survivors of Sexual Violence Suffer in Silence Due to Stigma”, Zack Baddorf, Inter Press News Service Agency, March 2018.