International Treaties 

1. The Geneva Convention

2. United Nations Convention against Torture

3. Convention on the Rights of Child

4. Optional Protocol on the involvement of Children in Armed Conflict

5. Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

6. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Regional Treaties 

1. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

Domestic Law 

1. Rape In Egypt’s Penal Code Article 267 – Law No. 58 01 The year 1937 Promulgating the Penal Code


Reports of other International/Regional Organisations / National Governments

1.Exposing state hypocrisy: sexual violence by security forces in Egypt, International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), jUNE 2015

Books/Articles /Documents/ Research Papers / Workshops / Publications

1. Mariz Tadros, ‘Challenging Reified Masculinities: Men as Survivors of Politically Motivated Sexual Assault in Egypt’ [2016] 12(3) Middle East Women’s Studies 323-342

 2. Mariz Tadros, ‘Politically Motivated Sexual Assault and the Law in Violent Transitions: A Case Study from Egypt’, IDS Evidence Report No 8 Sexuality, Poverty and Law 13, June 2013

3. Aengus Carroll and Lucas Ramon Mendos, State-Sponsored Homophobia  A World Survey Of Sexual Orientation Laws: Criminalisation, Protection And Recognition, Edition,  May 2017


1. Aswat Masriya , ‘The Untold Story of Sexual Harassment Against Men in Egypt’ (Egyptian Streets, 3 July 2014)

2. Ageofconsent, ‘Age of Consent in Egypt ‘ (Ageofconsent, 

3., ‘Egypt: Epidemic of Sexual Violence ‘ (Human Rights Watch, July 3, 2013)


1.  ‘Egyptian police ‘using rape as a weapon’ against activists’ Louisa loveluck, Telegraphcouk, 22 January 2015)

2. Patrick kingsley, ‘Egyptian police ‘using rape as a weapon’ against dissident groups’ (The Guardian, 12 April 2014)


3. Egypt: Draft bill to criminalize same-sex relations amid unprecedented homophobic crackdown, Amnesty International News, 9 November 2017

4. You can’t be out’: Gay Egyptians continue to fear persecution, Hadley Stewart, NBC News, Aug. 18, 2018


5. Egypt: Rampant torture, arbitrary arrests and detentions signal catastrophic decline in human rights one year after ousting of Morsi, Amnesty International News, 3 July 2014