International Law

International Treaties 

1. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (adopted 17 July 1998, entered into force 1 July 2002) 2187 UNTS 3. 

2. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR).

3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976) 993 UNTS 3 (ICESCR). 

4. Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted 20 November 1989, entered into force 2 September 1990) 1577 UNTS 3 (CRC). 

5. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (adopted 10 December 1984, entered into force 26 June 1987) 1465 UNTS 85 (CAT) 

Regional Treaties

1. African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (adopted 27 June 1981, entered into force 21 October 1986) 21 ILM 58 (African Charter). 

Domestic Law 

Reports of the United Nations

United Nations Children’s Fund, “Hidden in Plain Sight: A Statistical Analysis of Violence against Children” (UNICEF 2014)

UNHRC, “Concluding Observations on the Initial Reports of Ghana” (9 August 2016) UN Doc CCPR/C/GHA/CO/1

Reports of other International/Regional Organisations / National Governments

1. African Center for International Law and Accountability, “3rd Cycle Universal Periodic Review  (ACILA 2017)

2. African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, “275: Resolution on Protection against Violence and other Human Rights Violations against Persons on the Basis of Their Real or Imputed Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity” (The African Commission May 2014)

3. Gruber et al, “Caring for Boys Affected by Sexual Violence” (Family for Every Child 2018)

4. Human Rights Watch, “‘No Choice but to Deny Who I Am’ Violence and Discrimination against LGBT People in Ghana” (HRW 2017)

5. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Ghana Statistical Services (GSS) and Associates, “Domestic Violence in Ghana: Incidence, Attitudes, Determinants and Consequences” (IDS 2016)

6. Mensa SY, “Rights of LGBT in Ghana: Perception of Ghanaians Living in Ghana” (DUAS 2017)

7. Solace Brothers Foundation et al, “Human Rights Violations Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People in Ghana: A Shadow Report” (Human Rights Committee August 2015)

Books, Articles and Newspaper Publications

1. Bettina Böhm, “Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse in Ghana: Causes, Consequences and Implications for Interventions” (Ludwig-Maximilians-University 2016)

2. Essien V, “Sources of Law in Ghana”, (1994) 24:3 Journal of Black Studies 246

3. Norman I, Awiah B, Norvivor F, Komesuor J, Kweku M, Binka F, “Homosexuality in Ghana” (2016) 6 Advances in Applied Sociology 12



1. Adamu  Zaina, Ghana, child abuse law reforms will limit molestation – Expert, , Ghana, 20-09-2018