International Law

I. International Treaties

1.  Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 2002

2. UN Convention  on The  Rights of The Child 1990 

3. Convention against Torture and other Cruel and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984. 

4. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 1990 

 II. Regional Treaties 

1.  African Charter Of the Rights and Welfare of the Child 1990 

2. African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights 1981  

3.  African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 2003 

Domestic Law 

Case Law

1. The Prosecutor v. Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud 2018 (ICC)

On 31 March 2018, Mr. Al Hassan was transferred to the International Criminal Court following a warrant of his arrest issued by the Chamber on 27 March 2018 for war crimes and crimes against humanity. 

The warrant of arrest provides that Al Hassan, a Malian national, was a member of Ansar Eddine and chief of Islamic police. He is alleged to have been involved in work of the Islamic court and participated in executing its decisions in Timbuktu. Another allegation against Al Hassan describes that he has participated in the policy of forced marriages against female inhabitants which has led to sexual enslavement and repeated rapes of women and girls. 

The Chamber issued the warrant of arrest on the basis that there were reasonable grounds to believe that Al Hassan is criminally liable under article 25(3)(a) or 25(3)(b) of the ICC Statute for crimes against humanity including torture, rape and sexual slavery, the persecution of the inhabitants of Timbuktu on gender and religious grounds, other inhumane acts and for war crimes including rape and sexual slavery. 

Reports of the United Nations

1. UN Security Council, ‘Conflict-related Sexual Violence’ (UNSC, March 2015)

2. UNICEF, ‘Child Protection Risks and Needs in Mali’ (Child Protection Global Protection Cluster, September 2018)

Reports of other International / Regional Organizations

1. Richard Reeve, ‘Mali on the Brink’ (PeaceDirect, July 2018) p 10 <

2. Mali Periodic Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 2011 p 21 <

3. 28TooMany, ‘Mali: The Law and FGM’ (28TooMany, September 2018) <>

4. Mali Human Rights Report 2013 <>

5. Care International, ‘Men, Gender Equality and Gender Relations in Mali Summary Report’ (Care, May 2013) p 22 <>

6. Mali Periodic Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 2011 p 21 <>

7. The African Report on Violence Against Children 2014 <>

8. Violence Against Women in Mali: A Report to the Human Rights Committee (2003) <>

9. FIDH, ‘Mali: Choosing Justice in the Face of Crisis’ (FIDH, December 2017) <

10. Gloria Gaggioli, ‘Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict’ (ICRC, 2015) <>

Books, Articles and Newspaper Publications

1. International Criminal Court, ‘Al Hassan case: Confirmation of charges hearing postponed to 6 May 2019’ (ICC, 20 July 2018) <>

 2. UN News Service, ‘Addressing Sexual Violence Central to Mali Peace Process, UN Envoy Says’ (ReliefWeb, 18 April 2016) 



1.  Shekou M. Sesay, Davidson S.H.W. Nicol and Christopher Fyfe, ‘Sierra Leone’ (Encyclopaedia Brittanica) <>  

2. Shola Lawal, ‘In Sierra Leone’s fight against rape, a reminder that law is not enough’ (The Christian Science Monitor, August 5 2019) <>   

3. The Commonwealth, ‘Sierra Leone: History’ (The Commonwealth) <>

4. Samuel Momodu, ‘The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002)’ (Blackpast, January 16 2017) <>  

5. The Heritage Foundation, ‘Sierra Leone Economy’ (2019 Index of Economic Freedom, 2019) <


1. UN News Service, Addressing Sexual Violence Central to Mali Peace Process, UN Envoy Says, ReliefWeb, 18 April 2016